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Selasa, 08 Desember 2009

Nakajima Ki-43



Satoshi Anabuki Oscar's
http://warandgame.blogspot.com http://images.google.co.id

The Nakajima Ki-43 Hayabusa (隼, "Peregrine Falcon") was a single-engine land-based tactical fighter used by the Imperial Japanese Army Air Force in World War II. The army designation was "Type 1 Fighter" (一式戦闘機); the Allied codename was "Oscar". Like the Japanese Navy's A6M, the radial-engined Ki-43 was light, maneuverable and easy to fly. The Ki-43 was legendary for its combat performance in East Asia in the early years of the war. Its lightweight construction, lack of armour and limited firepower, however proved to be deficient in comparison to later, more powerful Allied fighters. Nevertheless, the Ki-43 shot down more Allied aircraft than any other Japanese fighter. Total production amounted to 5,919 aircraft.[1]

Contents

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[edit] Design and development

The Ki-43 was designed by Hideo Itokawa, who would later become famous as a pioneer of Japanese rocketry. The Ki-43 prototype was produced in response to a December 1937 specification for a successor to the popular Nakajima Ki-27. The specification called for a top speed of 500 km/h (311 mph), a climb rate of 5,000 m (16,400 ft) in five minutes and a range of 800 km (500 mi). Maneuverability was to be at least good as the Ki-27.[2]

When first flown in January 1939, the Ki-43 prototype was a disappointment. Japanese test pilots complained that it was less maneuverable than the Ki-27 and not much faster.[3] In order to solve these problems, Nakajima produced a series of progressively modified prototypes through the 1939 and 40. These changes involved a major weight saving programme, a slimmer fuselage with the tail surfaces moved further aft and a new canopy. Crucially, the 11th prototype introduced unique "butterfly" (or Fowler-type) maneuvering flaps, which dramatically improved performance in tight turns. The 13th prototype combined all these changes, and tests of this aircraft resulted in an instruction for Nakajima to place the Ki-43 into production, the Ki-27 jigs being transferred to the Mansyu factory at Harbin in Japanese occupied Manchukuo.[4]

The initial production version was given the designation Ki-43-I. Deliveries from Nakajima's Ota factory commenced in April 1941. In addition to outstanding maneuverability, the Ki-43-I had a very impressive rate of climb due to its light weight. Power was provided by the Nakajima Ha-25 engine turning a two bladed, two-pitch metal propeller.[5] Top speed was 495 km/h (308 mph) at 4,000 m (13,160 ft).[6] The Ki-43 was equipped with two cowling machine guns in various configurations, with either two 7.7 mm (.303 in) Type 97 machine guns, one 12.7 mm (.50 in) Ho-103 machine gun (machine cannon) and one 7.7 mm (.303 in) gun, or two 12.7 mm (.50 in) Ho-103 guns; the aircraft was given various sub-designations to reflect these differences. The configuration that appears to have been most prevalent at the outset of the war was the latter configuration with two 12.7 mm (.50 in) Ho-103 machine guns, sometimes given the official designation Ki-43-I (Mark Ic).[7] The Ho-103 was often loaded with explosive ammunition to increase target effect; its penetrative effect against later Allied aircraft armor appears to have been marginal.[7]

Prototypes for the Ki-43-II flew in February 1942. The Ha-25 engine was replaced by the more powerful Nakajima Ha-115 engine, which was installed in a longer-chord cowling. The new engine turned a three bladed propeller. The wing structure, which had suffered failures in the Ki-43-I, was strengthened and equipped with racks for drop tanks or bombs. The Ki-43-II was also fitted with 13 mm armor plate for the pilot's head and back, and the aircraft's fuel tanks were coated in rubber to crude form of self-sealing tank. The pilot also enjoyed a slightly taller canopy and a reflector gunsight in place of the earlier telescopic gunsight.[8] Nakajima commenced production of the Ki-43-II at its Ota factory in November 1942.[9] Production was also started at the Tachikawa Hikoki and the 1st Army Air Arsenal, also at Tachikawa. Although Tachikawa Hikoki sucessfully managed to enter into large scale production of the Ki-43, the 1st Army Air Arsenal was less successful, being hampered by a shortage of skilled workers, being ordered to stop production after 49 Ki-43s were built.[10] Nakajima eventually ceased production in mid-1944 in favor of the Ki-84, but the Tachikawa Hikoki continued to produce the Ki-43.[11]

Tachikawa also produced the Ki-43-III, which utilized the more powerful Ha-115-II engine. Maximum speed increased to 358 mph.[11] Tachikawa produced 2124 Ki-43-II and -III aircraft between April 1944 and the end of the war.[12] Total production of all versions amounted to 5,919 aircraft.[13]

[edit] Operational history

A Ki-43 III-Ko, piloted by Second Lieutenant Toshio Anazawa and carrying a 250 kg (550 lb) bomb, sets off from a Japanese airfield for the Okinawa area, on a kamikaze mission, 12 April 1945. School girls wave goodbye in the foreground.

The Ki-43 was the most widely-used Army fighter, and equipped 30 sentai (groups) and 12 chutais (squadrons). The first version, Mark I, entered service in 1941, the Mark II in December 1942, the II-Kai in June 1943, and the Mark IIIa in summer 1944. The aircraft fought in China, Burma, the Malay Peninsula, New Guinea, the Philippines, South Pacific islands and the Japanese home islands.[14]

Like the Zero, the Ki-43 initially enjoyed air superiority in the skies of Malaya, Netherlands East Indies, Burma and New Guinea. This was partly to do with the better performance of the Oscar[15] and partly due to the relatively small numbers of combat-ready Allied fighters, mostly the P-36 Hawk, Curtiss P-40, Brewster Buffalo, Hawker Hurricane and Curtiss-Wright CW-21 in Asia and the Pacific during the first months of the war. As the war progressed, however, the fighter suffered from the same weaknesses as the "Nate" and the Zero; light armor and less-than-effective self-sealing fuel tanks, which caused high casualties in combat. Its armament of two machine guns also proved inadequate against the more heavily armoured Allied aircraft. As newer Allied aircraft were introduced, such as the P-47 Thunderbolt, P-38 Lightning, P-51 Mustang, F4U Corsair, F6F Hellcat and late-model Supermarine Spitfire/Seafire, the Japanese were forced into a defensive war and most aircraft were flown by inexperienced pilots. Towards the end of the war, many Hayabusas were expended in kamikaze raids.

The Ki-43 also served in an air defense role over Formosa, Okinawa and the Japanese home islands. Some examples were supplied to the pro-Japanese countries of Thailand, Manchukuo and Wang Jingwei Government as well. The Thai units sometimes fought against the USAAF in southern China.[16]

A Ki-43-II.

Hayabusas were well liked in the JAAF because of the pleasant flight characteristics and excellent manouevreability, and almost all JAAF fighter aces claimed victories with Hayabusa in some part of their career. At the end of the war, most Hayabusa units received Ki-84 Hayate "Frank" fighters, but some units flew the Hayabusa to the end of the war. The top-scoring Hayabusa pilot was Sergeant Satoshi Anabuki with 59 victories.

After the war, some examples served in limited numbers in the French Air Force in Indochina against communist rebels.[17]

[edit] Variants

Ki-43
Prototypes and operative prototypes.
Ki-43-Ia
Variant armed with 2 × 7.7 mm (.303 in) Type 97 machine guns
Hayabusa Fighter Type 1 of Army (Mark 1).
Ki-43-Ib (Mark Ib)
Variant armed with one 12.7 mm (.50 in) Ho-103 machine gun and 1 × 7.7 mm (.303 in) Type 97
Ki-43-Ic (Mark Ic)
Variant armed with 2 × 12.7 mm (.50 in) Ho-103
Ki-43-II
Prototypes and evaluative models.
Ki-43-IIa (Mark 2a)
Ability to carry up to 500 kg (1,100 lb) of bombs
Ki-43-IIb (Mark 2b)
Radio equipment added
Ki-43-II-KAI
Fitted with ejector exhaust stacks
Ki-43-III
Prototypes powered by Nakajima Ha-115-II engine of 920 kW (1,230 hp)
2 × 170 L (45 gal) drop tanks (~3 hour full-throttle endurance)
Ki-43-IIIa (Mark 3a)
Series model
Ki-43-IIIb (Mark 3b)
Variant armed with 20 mm cannons.
Ki-62 Project
Advanced interceptor version of Nakajima Ki-43 with a powerful engine and armed with 30 mm (1.18 in) or 40 mm (1.57 in) cannons.
(wikipedia)

Senin, 02 November 2009

NAVAJO CODE TALKERS, WINDTALKER THE KEY OF MARINES IN PACIFIC


Guadalcanal, Tarawa, Peleliu, Iwo Jima: the Navajo code talkers took part in every assault the U.S. Marines conducted in the Pacific from 1942 to 1945. They served in all six Marine divisions, Marine Raider battalions and Marine parachute units, transmitting messages by telephone and radio in their native language — a code that the Japanese never broke.

The idea to use Navajo for secure communications came from Philip Johnston, the son of a missionary to the Navajos and one of the few non-Navajos who spoke their language fluently. Johnston, reared on the Navajo reservation, was a World War I veteran who knew of the military's search for a code that would withstand all attempts to decipher it. He also knew that Native American languages — notably Choctaw — had been used in World War I to encode messages.

Johnston believed Navajo answered the military requirement for an undecipherable code because Navajo is an unwritten language of extreme complexity. Its syntax and tonal qualities, not to mention dialects, make it unintelligible to anyone without extensive exposure and training. It has no alphabet or symbols, and is spoken only on the Navajo lands of the American Southwest. One estimate indicates that less than 30 non-Navajos, none of them Japanese, could understand the language at the outbreak of World War II.

For other information, check this out at :

http://www.californiaindianeducation.org/native_american_veterans/navajo_code_talkers.html

Below there are some navajo's code that used in WW2
(DECLASSIFIED UNDER DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DIRECTIVE 5200.9). ...

NAMES OF VARIOUS
ORGANIZATIONS NAVAJO WORD LITERAL TRANSLATION
CORPS DIN-NEH-IH CLAN
DIVISION ASHIH-HI SALT
REGIMENT TABAHA EDGE WATER
BATTALION TACHEENE RED SOIL
COMPANY NAKIA MEXICAN
PLATOON HAS-CLISH-NIH MUD
SECTION YO-IH BEADS
SQUAD DEBEH-LI-ZINI BLACK SHEEP

OFFICERS
COMMANDING GEN. BIH-KEH-HE (G) WAR CHIEF
MAJOR GEN. SO-NA-KIH TWO STAR
BRIGADIER GEN. SO-A-LA-IH ONE STAR
COLONEL ATSAH-BESH-LE-GAI SILVER EAGLE
LT. COLONEL CHE-CHIL-BE-TAH-BESH-LEGAI SILVER OAK LEAF
MAJOR CHE-CHIL-BE-TAH-OLA GOLD OAK LEAF
CAPTAIN BESH-LEGAI-NAH-KIH TWO SILVER BARS
LIEUTENANT BESH-LEGAI-A-LAH-IH ONE SILVER BAR
COMMANDING OFFICER HASH-KAY-GI-NA-TAH WAR CHIEF
EXECUTIVE OFFICER BIH-DA-HOL-NEHI THOSE IN CHARGE

source : http://www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq61-4.htm



Sabtu, 17 Oktober 2009

MONTAGE OF WW2 GAME

Many games are based to WW2 stories. From baldy fun console like ATARI, SEGA to funtastic of PS3, XBOX and PC game. Lets check it out some of those :























M1919, US LMG FOR SUPPORT FIRE





Gun, Machine, Caliber .30, Browning, M1919A4
Brm1919.jpg
Browning M1919
Type Medium machine gun
Place of origin United States
Service history
In service 1919–1970s (U.S.)
Used by See Users
Wars World War I, World War II, Korean War, Congo Crisis, Vietnam War, Rhodesian Bush War
Production history
Designed 1919
Produced 1919–1945
Variants A1–A6; M37
Specifications
Weight 31 lb (14 kg) (M1919A4)
Length
  • 37.94 in (964 mm) (M1919A4)
  • 53 in (1346 mm) (M1919A6)
Barrel length 24 in (609 mm)

Cartridge
Action Recoil-operated/short-recoil operation
Rate of fire 400–600 round/min
Muzzle velocity 2,800 ft/s (853.6 m/s)
Effective range 1,500 yd (1,370 m) (maximum)
Feed system 250-round belt

The M1919 Browning is a .30 caliber medium machine gun that was widely used during the 20th century. It was used as a light infantry, coaxial, mounted, aircraft, and anti-aircraft machine gun by the U.S. and many other countries, especially during World War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War. Although it began to be superseded by newer designs in the later half of the century (such as by the M60 machine gun), it remained in use in many North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) countries and elsewhere for much longer. It is very similar in design to the larger .50 in (12.7 mm) M2 Machine Gun, which is also a Browning-designed weapon and is still in NATO service.

Many M1919s were rechambered for the new 7.62 × 51 mm NATO round and served into the 1990s, as well as up to the present day in some countries. The United States Navy also converted many to 7.62 mm NATO, and designated them Mk 21 Mod 0; they were commonly used on river craft in the 1960s and 1970s in Vietnam.

Contents

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[edit] History

US soldiers fire a M1919A4 in Aachen

The M1919 was an air-cooled development of the standard US machine gun of World War I, the Browning M1917, as designed by John M. Browning. The weapon originally fired the .30-06 M1, and later the M2 Ball cartridge contained in woven cloth or metallic link belts, feeding from left to right.

Two Marines with a M1919A4 on Namur Island during World War II

[edit] Operation

[edit] Loading

Loading was accomplished by opening the top cover, lifting the extractor, inserting the new belt of ammunition into the gun's feed tray, then lowering the extractor over the first round in the belt. As the cover closed, the operator's right thumb made sure the belt feed lever was to the left to ensure the lever fit into the belt feed lever stud cam groove, a machined groove on top of the bolt. After latching the cover, the cocking handle was pulled back palm-up, to avoid thumb dislocation from a 'hot-barrel-cooked-off' round, and released inserting the first round into the barrel's chamber.

[edit] Firing

When the rear of the trigger is pivoted upwards by the operator, the front of the trigger tips downwards releasing the sear, and the sear, in turn, releases the firing pin allowing it to strike the primer of the cartridge

[edit] Operational Use

[edit] Infantry

A US soldier takes aim with a tripod-mounted M1919A4 in Korea, 1953.

As a company or battalion support weapon, the M1919 required at least a two-man machine gun team, but in practice, four men were normally involved; the gunner (who fired the gun), the assistant gunner (who helped feed the gun and carried either the gun or the tripod), and two ammunition carriers.[1] The original idea was to allow the gun to be more easily packed for transport, and featured a light barrel and bipod when first introduced as the M1919A1. Unfortunately, it quickly became clear that the gun was too heavy to be easily moved, while at the same time too light for sustained fire. This led to the M1919A2, which included a heavier barrel and tripod, and could be continuously fired for longer durations.

The M1919A4 weighed about 31 lb (14 kg), and was ordinarily mounted on a lightweight, low-slung tripod for infantry use. Fixed vehicle mounts were also employed. It saw wide use in World War II mounted on jeeps, armored personnel carriers, tanks, and amphibious vehicles. The M1919A4 played a key role in the firepower of the World War II US Army infantry company, which unlike other armies, normally had a weapons platoon in addition to its other organic units. The presence of M1919A4 weapons in the weapons platoon gave company commanders additional automatic fire support at the company level, whether in the assault or on defense.[2]

An M24 Chaffee armed with an M1919A4 in a ball mounting on the front hull and an M1919A5 to the right of the main gun in the turret.

The A5 was an adaptation of the A4 with a forward mounting point to allow it to be mounted in tanks and armored cars. This, along with the M37 and the Browning M2 machine gun, was the most common secondary armament during World War II for the Allies.

M1919A6 in use during the Korean War

Another version of the M1919A4, the M1919A6, was an attempt to make the weapon into a light machine gun by attaching a buttstock and lighter barrel — 4 lb (1.8 kg) instead of 7 lb (3.2 kg). The A6 version was in fact heavier than the A4 without its tripod, at 32 lb (15 kg), though its bipod made for faster deployment and enabled the machine gun team to dispense with one man (the tripod bearer).[3] The A6 version saw increasing service in the latter days of World War II and was used extensively in Korea. The A6 variant had a folding bipod mounted on the front of the gun, a sheet-metal buttstock, carrying handle, and a tapered barrel. While the modifications were intended to make the weapon more useful as a squad light machine gun, it was a stopgap solution, as the M1919A6 was heavier than the old Lewis gun of World War I, let alone the contemporary light machine guns of other nations.

During the Second World War, two additional variants of the M1919 were adopted by the US military. One version is the coaxial M37 variant, with the ability to feed from either the left or the right of the weapon. The M37 also featured an extended charging handle similar to those on the M1919A4E1 and A5. A trial variant fitted with special sighting equipment was designated M37F.

In the late 1950s, a M1919 designed for remote firing via a solenoid trigger was developed for use in the XM1/E1 armament subsystem was designated M37C. The US Navy later converted a number of M1919A4's to 7.62 mm NATO chambering and designated them Mk 21 Mod 0; some of these weapons were employed in Vietnam in riverine warfare patrols.

During the Six Day War in 1967, Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) used vehicle-mounted M1919A4 guns converted to 7.62 mm NATO on many of their armored vehicles and M3 personnel carriers.

[edit] Aircraft

An Aviation Ordnanceman stationed at the Naval Air Station Corpus Christi installing a M1919 Browning machine gun in a PBY flying boat, ca. 1942

With assistance from firearms engineers at Fabrique Nationale de Herstal[4], Belgium, the Model 1919 was completely re-engineered into the .30 caliber M2 AN (Army-Navy) aircraft machine gun. The .30 in M2 AN Browning was widely adopted as both a fixed (offensive) and flexible (defensive) weapon on aircraft. Aircraft machine guns required light weight, firepower, and reliability, and achieving all three goals proved a difficult challenge. The receiver walls and operating components of the M2 were made thinner and lighter, and with air cooling provided by the speed of the aircraft, designers were able to reduce the barrel's weight and profile. As a result, the M2 weighed two-thirds that of the 1919A4, and the lightened mechanism gave it a rate of fire approaching 1,200 rpm (some variants could achieve 1,500 rpm)[4], a necessity for engaging fast-moving aircraft. The M2's feed mechanism had to lift its own loaded belt out of the ammunition box and feed it into the the gun, equivalent to a weight of 11 lb (5 kg).[5] In Ordnance circles, the .30 M2 AN Browning had the reputation of being the most difficult-to-repair weapon in the entire US small arms inventory.[5]

The M2 also appeared in a twin-mount version which paired two M2 guns with opposing feed chutes in one unit for operation by a single gunner, with a combined rate of fire of 2,400 rpm. All of the various M2 models saw service in the early stages of World War II, but were phased out in 1943 as hand-trained defensive machine guns became obsolete for air warfare (the .50 in/12.7 mm M2 Browning and 20 mm automatic cannon had replaced the .30 in as offensive air armament as well). The .30 in M2 aircraft gun was widely distributed to other US allies during and after World War II, and in British and Commonwealth service saw limited use as a vehicle-mounted anti-aircraft or anti-personnel machine gun.[6]

[edit] Other calibers

The same basic weapon was also chambered for the British .303 round, and was used as a basic fighter aircraft gun in fighters such as the Supermarine Spitfire until the widespread introduction of the larger caliber Hispano-Suiza HS.404 cannon, and throughout the war in bombers. Similar versions for a variety of European calibers were delivered by the Belgian gun maker FN (Fabrique Nationale), notably German-standard 7.92 Mauser which was widely used in Eastern Europe; and by Swedish gun maker Carl Gustaf SGF in 6.5x55mm and 8x63mm calibers.

[edit] Production

The M1919 was manufactured during World War II by many different companies in the US including the Saginaw Steering Gear division of the General Motors Corporation, Buffalo Arms Corporation, and Rock Island Arsenal. In the UK, production was chiefly by BSA.

[edit] Civilian Use

The Browning M1919 and M2 aircraft guns remain popular with civilian enthusiasts, who have in some cases fitted their M2 aircraft guns with buttstocks and bipods to allow for use without a tripod or other mount. The modified AN/M2 consists of a butt stock from a US M1 Garand fastened to the receiver of the Browning machine gun, a rear sight typically from a BAR 1918 and an improvised trigger. These conversions are based on field conversions carried out by soldiers in the Pacific Theatre during World War II. A weapon of this type was used by Marine Corporal Tony Stein in the invasion of Iwo Jima, who would posthumously receive the Medal of Honor for his actions during the battle. It had a rate of fire in excess of 1,200 rpm and was nicknamed the "Stinger."[7]

[edit] Variants and derivatives

[edit] M1919 variants

In total there were six variants of the basic M1919 machine gun. The original M1919 featured a relatively heavy barrel, attempting to match the sustained fire capability of contemporary water-cooled machine guns.[citation needed] The M1919A1 featured a lighter barrel and a bipod. The M1919A2 was another lightweight development specifically for mounted cavalry units, utilizing a shorter barrel and special tripod (though it could be fitted to either the M1917 or M2 tripods). This weapon was designed to allow greater mobility to cavalry units over the existing M1917 machine gun. The M1919A2 was used for a short period between World War I and World War II after the cavalry had converted from horses to wheeled and tracked vehicles. An improved version of the M1919A2, the M1919A3, was also developed.

However, by and large the most common variant of the series was the M1919A4, which utilized .30-06 M2 Ball ammunition. The M1919A4 was used in both fixed and flexible mounts, by infantry and on vehicles. It was also widely exported after World War II and continues to be used in small numbers around the world. Two variants were developed specifically for vehicular use, the M1919A5, with an extended charging handle, and the M1919A4E1, a subvariant of the M1919A4 refitted with an extended charging handle.

The last ground variant was an attempt to make a special variant for the airborne (paratroops). The M1919A6 featured a lighter bipod, a removable butstock, and was lighter to make it easier for the paratrooper to handle in airdrops.

A specific aircraft version of the Model 1919A4 was manufactured by Browning with a thinner barrel and thinner receiver walls. It was used on US aircraft early in the war, but was replaced by the larger .50 in (12.7 mm) M2 machine gun and relegated to training duties. A derivative of this weapon was built by Colt as the MG40. This weapon is not to be confused with the Browning Machine Gun, Cal. .50, M2, Aircraft, and its full designation is Browning Machine Gun, Cal. .30, M2, Aircraft. The .30 in M2 Browing is sometimes referred to as AN/M2.

[edit] M37 and Mk 21

Mk 21 in Vietnam

The M37 coaxial machine gun has the ability to feed an ammunition belt from either the left or the right of the weapon, and has an extended charging handle similar to those on the M1919A4E1 and A5. A trial variant fitted with special sighting equipment was designated M37F, while a variant with spade grips, the T152, was also developed but not adopted. A variant designed for remote firing via a solenoid trigger for use in the XM1/E1 armament subsystem was designated M37C. A version of the M37, rechambered in 7.62x51 mm NATO is rumored to have been created, though no examples have been found. There is also a M1919A4 US Navy variant in 7.62 mm NATO caliber designated Mk 21 Mod 0.

[edit] International variants and derivatives

The M1919 pattern has been used in countries all over the world in a variety of forms and under a number of different designations.

  • The Browning Mk 1 and Mk 2 were older-style Commonwealth designations for the .303 caliber Browning machine guns used on the vast majority of British aircraft of World War II at one point or another. The difference between the Mk 1 and Mk 2 versions is unknown, but the weapon visually is quite similar AN/M2 aircraft gun. The post-war designations for these weapons was L3, and they were used by the United Kingdom, Canada, and Australia to designate the fixed (A1) and flexible (A2) versions of the M1919A4 in .30-06 caliber. L3A3 and L3A4 denoted sear hold-open conversion of previous L3A1s and L3A2s. The A3 is the modified version of the A1, and the A4 is the modified version of the A2. The Canadians later adopted a separate designation for 7.62x51 mm rechambered M1919A4s for fixed (C1) and flexible (C1A1) applications. The C5 and C5A1 were product improvements of the previous C1 and C1A1 respectively.
  • The Browning was produced by FN-Herstal in Belgium as well, being used in, among others, the Fokker D. XXI fighter.
  • FN-Browning mle 1938 was the French designation for the FN-built derivative converted to 7.5 mm MAS ammunition. Manufactured in the late 1930s.
  • MG A4 is the Austrian designation for the M1919A4, not to be confused with MG4, a South African licence-built version of the M1919A4 in current use with the South African National Defence Forces (SANDF). The MG4 is manufactured by Lyttleton Engineering, Pretoria. Mg M/52-1 and Mg M/52-11 were Danish designations for the M1919A4 and M1919A5 respectively.
  • The Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) used vehicle-mounted M1919A4 guns converted to 7.62 mm NATO on many of their armored vehicles.
  • Ksp m/42 was the Swedish designation for license-built M1919 chambered in 6.5 x 55 mm or 8 x 63 mm, and from about 1975, mostly fitted with barrels in 7.62 x 51 mm. The Ksp m/42B was a lighter version with bipod and shoulder stock (used in a similar way as the M1919A6), chambered in 6.5 x 55 mm and later in 7.62 x 51 mm. The Ksp m/39 was a modification of the air-cooled M-1919 adapted for use in armored vehicles, initially in 8 x 63 mm, but later changed to 7.62 x 51 mm. It could be fed from either the left or the right.
  • The Poles developed a copy of the Browning M1919 chambered for 7.92 x 57mm Mauser, designated Ckm wz.32, similar to the earlier Ckm wz.30.

[edit] Commercial variants and derivatives

Colt produced a derivative of the M2 aircraft machine gun, the Colt MG40, which shipped in a variety of calibers including the basic .30-06 Springfield and 7mm Mauser.

Rabu, 16 September 2009

A-20 Havoc / P-70 DB-7 Boston


A-20G of the USAAF
Role Light bomber
Night fighter
Manufacturer Douglas
Designed by Ed Heinemann
First flight 23 January 1939
Introduced 10 January 1941
Primary users United States Army Air Forces
Soviet Air Force
Royal Air Force
French Air Force
Produced 1939-1944
Number built 7,478
A-20A

The Douglas A-20/DB-7 Havoc was a family of American attack, light bomber and night fighter aircraft of World War II, serving with several Allied air forces, principally those of the Soviet Union, United Kingdom, and United States. The DB-7 was also used by the air forces of Australia, South Africa, France, and The Netherlands during the war, and Brazil afterwards. The bomber aircraft was known as Boston among British and Commonwealth air forces, while the RAF night fighter variants were given the service name Havoc. The USAAF assigned the DB-7 the designation "A-20" and gave it the popular name "Havoc".

Contents

[hide]

[edit] Design and development

In March 1937, a design team headed by Donald Douglas, Jack Northrop and Ed Heinemann produced a proposal for a light bomber powered by a pair of 450 hp (336 kW) Pratt & Whitney R-985 Wasp Junior engines mounted on a high-mounted wing. It was estimated it could have carried a 1,000 lb (454 kg) bomb load at 250 mph (400 km/h). Reports of aircraft performance from the Spanish Civil War indicated that this design would be seriously underpowered and, subsequently, it was cancelled.

In the autumn of the same year, the United States Army Air Corps issued its own specification for an attack aircraft. The Douglas team, now headed by Heinemann, took the Model 7A design, upgraded to 1,100 hp (820 kW) Pratt & Whitney R-1830 S3C3-G Twin Wasp engines, and submitted the design as the Model 7B. It faced competition from the North American NA-40, the Stearman X-100 and the Martin 167F. The Model 7B was maneuverable and fast, but did not attract any US orders.

The model did, however, attract the attention of a French Purchasing Commission visiting the USA. The French discreetly participated in the flight trials, so as not to attract criticism from U.S. isolationists, but the secret was blown when the 7B crashed on 23 January 1939, while demonstrating single-engine performance. The French were still impressed enough to order 100 production aircraft, with the order increased to 270 when the war began. Sixteen of those had been ordered by Belgium for its Aviation Militaire.

Although not the fastest or longest-legged in its class, the Douglas DB-7 series distinguished itself as a tough, dependable combat aircraft with an excellent reputation due to its speed and manoeuvrability. In a report to the Aeroplane and Armament Experimental Establishment (AAEE) at RAF Boscombe Down, test pilots summed it up as "has no vices and is very easy to takeoff and land... The aeroplane represents a definite advantage in the design of flying controls... extremely pleasant to fly and manoeuvre."[1] Ex-pilots often consider it their favorite aircraft of the war due to the ability to toss it around like a fighter.[2] Its true impact was that the Douglas bomber/night fighter was extremely adaptable and found a role in every combat theater of the war and excelled as a true "pilot's aeroplane."[3]

When DB-7 series production finally ended on 20 September 1944, a total of 7,098 had been built by Douglas and a further 380 by Boeing.

[edit] Operational history

Douglas A-20J-10-DO (S/N 43-10129) of the 409th or 416th Bomb Group mortally wounded by flak over Germany

The French order called for substantial modifications, and the new designation DB-7 (for Douglas Bomber 7) was introduced. It had a narrower, deeper fuselage, 1,000 hp (746 kW) Pratt & Whitney R-1830-SC3-G radials, French-built guns, and metric instruments. Midway through the delivery phase, engines were switched to 1,100 hp (820 kW) Pratt & Whitney R-1830-S3C4-G. The French designation was DB-7 B-3 (the B-3 signifying "three-seat bomber").

The DB-7s were shipped in sections to Casablanca for assembly and service in France and French North Africa. When the Germans attacked France and the Low Countries on 10 May 1940, the 64 available DB-7s were deployed against the advancing Panzers. Before the armistice they were evacuated to North Africa to avoid capture by German forces. Here, they fell under control of the Vichy government, but saw practically no action against the Allies except briefly during Operation Torch. After French forces in North Africa had sided with the Allies, DB-7 were used as trainers and were replaced in frontline units by B-26 Marauders. In early 1945, a few DB-7s were sent back to France where they saw action against the remaining isolated German pockets on the Western coast.

[edit] Variants

Boston I & II
The Royal Air Force agreed to take up the balance of the now-frustrated French order which was diverted to Britain, and the aircraft were given the service name Boston with the further designation of "Mark I" or "Mark II" according to the earlier or later engine type.
Havoc I
The aircraft was generally unsuited for RAF use as its range was too limited for daylight raids on Germany. Many of the Boston Mk II, plus some re-engined Mk Is, were converted for night time duties - either as intruders with 2,400 lb (1,100 kg) bombs, or as night-fighters with AI Mk IV radar. These were known collectively as Havoc Mk I. A total of 181 Bostons were converted to Havocs. In interdiction raids, Havoc intruders caused considerable damage to German targets.
Havoc-Pandora
Twenty Havocs were converted into intruder aircraft, utilizing the Long Aerial Mine (LAM), an explosive charge trailed on a long cable in the path of enemy aircraft in the hope of scoring a hit. Trials conducted with lone Handley Page Harrows dropping LAMs into the stream of German bombers were not successful, consequently, the Havocs were converted back to Mk I intruders.
Havoc I Turbinlite
A further 31 Havocs were fitted with a 2,700 million candela (2.7 Gcd) searchlight in the nose. They were unarmed and were supposed to illuminate targets for accompanying Hurricane fighters, but in practice the conspicuous light made them ready targets for German gunners.
DB-7A / Havoc II
The French Purchasing Commission ordered a further 200 bombers, to be fitted with 1,600 hp (1,195 kW) Wright R-2600-A5B Double Cyclone engines. This variant was designated DB-7A by Douglas. None had been delivered before the fall of France, and they served instead as night-fighters with the RAF under the name of Havoc Mk II. They had an impressive top speed of 344 mph (550 km/h) at altitude. A total of 39 were used briefly in Turbinlite roles.
DB-7B / Boston III
The DB-7B was the first batch of the series to actually be ordered by Britain, in February 1940. Powered by the same engines as the DB-7A, with better armor and, crucially, larger fuel tanks, these were at last suitable for British use in the light bomber role. This was the batch for which the name "Boston" was first reserved, but since the commandeered DB-7s entered service first, this batch became known as the Boston Mk III. Amongst other operations, they took part in the attacks on the Scharnhorst, Gneisenau and Prinz Eugen during their dash through the English Channel (Operation Cerberus) and the infamous raid on Dieppe (Operation Jubilee). Three hundred were delivered and some were converted for use in intruder and night fighter roles.
DB-73
A French variant very similar to BD-7B, which again were diverted to England as Boston Mk IIIs. Many of these were built under licence by Boeing. Events further overtook this shipment after the German attack on the Soviet Union and the Attack on Pearl Harbor, when many Bostons were sent to the USSR and many more retained by the USAAF for its own use. Twenty-two were also sent to the RAAF by the British.
DB-7C
A Netherlands variant intended for service in the Netherlands East Indies, but the Japanese invasion was complete before they were delivered. The order was sent instead to the Soviet Union under Lend-Lease which would receive 3,125 examples of different variants of the Douglas DB-7 series.[2]
T30 triple launcher for 4.5 in (114 mm) rockets.
When shipments to the UK finally resumed, they were delivered under the terms of Lend-Lease. These aircraft were actually refitted A-20Cs known as the Boston IIIA.
A-20
The original American indifference to the Model 7B was overcome by the improvements made for the French and British, and the Army Air Corps ordered two models, the A-20 for high-altitude bombing and the A-20A for lower-altitude work. Both were similar to the DB-7B, the A-20 was to be fitted with turbosupercharged Wright R-2600-7 engines, but these were bulky and the prototype suffered cooling problems, so the remainder were completed with the un-supercharged R-2600-11, 59 as P-70 fighters and 3 as F-3 reconnaissance planes (described below).

One A-20 was evaluated by the US Navy as the BD-1, while the US Marine Corps operated eight examples as the BD-2.

A-20A
The U.S. Army ordered 123 A-20As with R-2600-3 engines, and a further 20 with more powerful R-2600-11. They entered service in spring 1941. The Army liked the A-20A because of its excellent performance and because it had no adverse handling characteristics. Nine of them were transferred to Australia in 1943. The British name "Havoc" was adopted for the A-20A.
A-20B
The A-20B received the first really large order from the US Army Air Corps: 999 aircraft. They resembled the DB-7A rather than the DB-7B, with light armor and stepped rather than slanted glazing in the nose. In fact, 665 were exported to the Soviets, so relatively few actually served with the USAAC.
A-20C being serviced at Langley Field, Virginia, 1942.
A-20C
The A-20C was an attempt to standardize a common British and American version, produced from 1941. It reverted to the slanting nose-glass and had RF-2600-23 engines, self-sealing fuel tanks and additional armor. They were equipped to carry an external 2,000 lb (907 kg) naval torpedo. A total of 948 were built for Britain and the Soviet Union, but many were retained by the USAAF after Pearl Harbor. The Soviet A-20s were often fitted out with turrets of indigenous design.[4]
A-20G Havoc USAAC.
A-20G
The A-20G, delivered from February 1943, would be the most produced of all the series - 2850 were built. The glazed nose was replaced by a solid nose containing four 20 mm (.79 in) Hispano cannons and two .50 in M2 Browning machine guns, making the aircraft slightly longer than previous versions. After the first batch of 250, the unreliable cannon were replaced by more machine guns. Some had a wider fuselage to accommodate a power driven gun turret. Many A-20Gs were delivered to the Soviet Union. The powerplant was the 1,600 hp (1,200 kW) R-2600-23. US A-20Gs were used on low-level sorties in the New Guinea theatre.
A-20H
The A-20H was the same as A-20G, continued with the 1,700 hp (1,270 kW) R-2600-29. 412 of these were built. The takeoff weight was raised to 24,170 lb (10,960 kg).
A-20J / Boston IV
The A-20J carried an additional bombardier in an extended acrylic glass nose section. These were intended to lead bombing formations, with the following standard A-20s dropping their bombs when signaled by the leader. A total of 450 were built, 169 for the RAF which designated them Boston Mk IV from summer 1944.
A-20K / Boston V
The A-20K (Boston Mk V in RAF parlance) was the final production version of the A-20 series, the same as the A-20J except for R-2600-29s instead of -23s.
P-70
In October 1940, the USAAC felt a need for long-range fighters more than attack bombers, so some of the production run of A-20s were converted to P-70 and P-70A night-fighters. They were equipped with SCR-540 radar (a copy of British AI Mk IV), the glazed nose often painted black to reduce glare and hide the details of the radar set, and had four 20 mm (.79 in) forward-firing cannon in a ventral bomb bay tray. Further P-70 variants were produced from A-20C, G and J variants. The singular airframe P-70B-1 (converted from an A-20G) and subsequent P-70B-2s (converted from A-20Gs and Js) had American centimetric radar (SCR-720 or SCR-729) fitted. The P-70s and P-70As saw combat ONLY in the Pacific during World War II and only with the USAAF. The P-70B-1 and P-70B-2 aircraft never saw combat but served as night fighter aircrew trainers in the US in Florida and later in California. All P-70s were retired from service by 1945.
F-3A
The F-3A was a conversion of 46 A-20J and K models for night-time photographic reconnaissance (F-3 were a few conversions of the original A-20). This variant was employed in the European Theatre by the 155th Photo Reconnaissance Squadron which began its deployment as the 423rd Night Fighter Squadron. The 423rd was converted to its photo mission as the 155th Night Reconnaissance Squadron in part because of knowledge of night fighter tactics which could be used to defend against German aircraft. Although armament was removed, the crew of three was retained consisting of, pilot, observer, and navigator. The first Allied aircraft to land at Itazuke, Japan after the August 1945 surrender was an F-3A.
DB-1
One A-20A was bought in 1940 by the United States Navy for evaluation for use by the United States Marine Corps. The Navy/Marine Corps did not have any priority on the production lines, so the DB was not put into service.
DB-2
In 1942, eight former Army A-20Bs were diverted to the United States Navy for use as high-speed target tugs. Despite the addition of the target-towing equipment and the removal of all armament and the provision to carry bombs the aircraft were still designated DB in the Bomber sequence. They were withdrawn from service in 1946.
O-53
An observation/reconnaissance version of the A-20B powered by two 1,700 hp (1,268 kW) R-2600-7 engines, order for 1,489 aircraft was cancelled and none were built.

[edit] Operators

RAF Boston III from No. 88 Squadron RAF over Dieppe, 1942

[edit] Survivors

A small number of surviving airframes exist both in flyable staus as well as static display condition in museum collections worldwide.

[edit] Specifications (DB-7B, Boston Mk III)

A-20s in bombing formation during World War II.
A flight of A-20G or H bombers over France, 1944.

Data from A-20 Havoc in action

General characteristics

  • Crew: 2-3
  • Length: 47 ft 11 in (14.63 m)
  • Wingspan: 61 ft 4 in (18.69 m)
  • Height: 17 ft 7 in (5.36 m)
  • Wing area: 465 ft² (43.2 m²)
  • Empty weight: 15,051 lb (6,827 kg)
  • Loaded weight: 27,200 lb (12,338 kg)
  • Max takeoff weight: 20,320 lb (9,215 kg)
  • Powerplant:Wright R-2600-A5B "Double Cyclone" radial engines, 1,700 hp (1,268 kW) each

Performance

Armament

(Wiki)